Eurasian Blackbird

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Eurasian Blackbird
Turdus merula

Identification
L. 23.5-29 cm
Male

All black
Yellow eye ring and bill

Female and Juvenile
FemalePhoto by juddermanWestport Lake, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire, February 2010
Female
Photo by judderman
Westport Lake, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire, February 2010

Brown plumage
Brown beak
No yellow eye ring

Overall, the juvenile is a slightly lighter brown than the female, and the very young juvenile has a speckled breast.
Distribution

It is common in woods and gardens over all of Europe and much of Asia south of the Arctic Circle. Populations are resident except for northern birds which move south in winter.

Generally abundant and widespread over much of the region. Breeds on the Faroes, British Isles, France and Spain east to the southern Urals, reaching much of Scandinavia except the far north and the higher mountains. In the south occurs along the north Mediterranean coast from Spain to the Middle East and on most major islands, Turkey except much of the interior, and the Caucasus. Also breeds on the Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and from Morocco to Tunisia. Now breeds annually in very small numbers in Iceland.
Juvenile Photo by Michael FosterStanley Park, Blackpool, Lancashire, May 2009
Juvenile
Photo by Michael Foster
Stanley Park, Blackpool, Lancashire, May 2009

Populations breeding in the far north and from Poland eastwards are largely migratory with most birds moving to the south-west from late September and returning in March-April. Elsewhere, in parts of range such as Britain, a partial migrant with many birds moving to Ireland. Occurs in winter in coastal Iceland, the birds probably originating in Scandinavia.

Vagrants recorded in Svalbard, Bear Island, Jan Mayen and a rare winter visitor to Kuwait. Casual vagrant to Greenland. Accidental to northeastern United States and Canada where origin is questioned. However it seems that Eurasian Blackbird should not be a popular cagebird.

The Blackbird has been introduced to many parts of the world outside its native range. In Australia and New Zealand it is considered a pest and has an effect on natural ecosystems.
Taxonomy
Subspecies
Chinese BlackbirdPhoto by NeilHong Kong, China, November 2006
Chinese Blackbird
Photo by Neil
Hong Kong, China, November 2006

There are 9 subspecies[1]: The number of subspecies of Eurasian Blackbird is either 9 or 10 depending on authority:

T. m. merula: Western Europe; introdced to south-eastern Australia, Tasmania, Norfolk, Lord Howe islands.
T. m. azorensis: Azores
T. m. cabrerae: Madeira and western Canary Islands
T. m. mauritanicus: North Africa (Morocco to Tunisia)
T. m. aterrimus: South-eastern Europe to Crete, Rhodes, Caucasus, Transcaucasia and northern Iran
T. m. syriacus: Southern Turkey to Syria, northern Iraq and southern Iran
T. m. intermedius: Central Asia to north-eastern Afghanistan, Pamirs and Xinjiang; winters to southern Iraq
T. m. sowerbyi: South-western China (Sichuan)
T. m. mandarinus: West-central China (Guizhou)

Two further subspecies: insularum and algirus are generally considered invalid.

The nominate race occurs over much of the Region, replaced by the duller and fractionally smaller aterrimus in South-East Europe and Turkey with the female being much greyer than female of merula. Middle Eastern race syriacus has longer and more slender bill than nominate and both sexes greyer in plumage. North African mauretanicus is longer-tailed and greyer, especially the female which also has yellow bill. Central Asian intermedius reaches the Region in winter, larger than merula with heavier bill and duller plumage.

Island races cabrerae from Madeira and the western Canary Islands, and azorensis from the Azores are shorter-winged with glossier, blacker plumage, including females.
Recent and proposed Splits

Tibetan Blackbird and Indian Blackbird have recently been split from this species. Two other splits are proposed:
Chinese Blackbird (Turdus mandarinus incl intermedius and sowerbyi)
Moroccan Blackbird (Turdus mauritanicus incl algirus)
Habitat

Woodland and forest, coniferous, mixed or deciduous, hedgerows and roadsides, parks and gardens and a range of scrub habitats. Occurs from sea-level up to more than 1500m.
Behaviour

A Blackbird has an average life expectancy of 2.4 years, the highest known age is 20 years.

It does not form flocks, although several birds, especially migrants, may be loosely associated in a suitable habitat. The female Blackbird is aggressive in the spring when it competes with others for a good nesting territory. The male is also competitive and will protect its territory by chasing away other males. If a fight between male Blackbirds does occur it is usually short and the intruder is soon chased away.
Flight

Swoops out of a hedge flying low across a road to gain safety in another hedge.
Breeding

A moss, grass and mud cup is constructed in a tree, bush or hedge; laying 3-5 (usually 4) bluish-green-grey eggs with brown reddish marks. They are incubated for about 2 weeks and fledge after a further 2 weeks.

The nest may be re-used for up to 5 further broods in the season, which runs from March to July.
Diet

Feeds on fruit and berries in shrubs and bushes; it will probe lawns for worms and other insects.
Vocalisation

Song: Mellow fluty musical warbling. Many variations and phrases.
Call: Gives a variety of alarm calls.

http://www.birdforum.net/opus/Eurasian_Blackbird

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